The combative midfielder joined the Black Cats from Wigan in 2009 on an initial five-year deal and his new contract will tie him to the club until the summer of 2021.
Cattermole made 28 appearances last season and is now just three games shy of 150 for the club.
Head coach Dick Advocaat said on safc.com: “Lee is the controller of the side. He is a motivator, a leader and central to the success of our team.
“To know that he will be with us for many years to come is very important to the club.”
Sunderland sporting director Lee Congerton said: “Lee is a hugely important part of our team, both on and off the field.
“He has 10 years of experience playing in the Premier League, which is incredible when you consider he is still only 27, and we are delighted that he has committed his long-term future to Sunderland.”