The 36-year-old former Celtic, Dundee United, Middlesbrough and Vancouver Whitecaps midfielder, who signed from Sheffield United two years ago, said he was happy to extend his time at Pittodrie.
Robson told the club website: “I feel as fit as I ever have done and I feel I will have plenty to offer next season.
“This is an exciting time to be at Aberdeen and I can’t wait for the new season to get under way.”
Dons’ manager Derek McInnes said. “There’s always a place for the type of experience Barry has and there is nobody more enthusiastic than him in the squad.
“Barry has demonstrated over the past few weeks that he still has that ability to perform well for the team.”
Robson, will, however miss Aberdeen’s final Premiership match of the season against St Johnstone on Sunday due to suspension.