Boateng, who has been part of the academy at Crystal Palace from the age of eight, signed a new deal in March to keep him at Selhurst Park until the summer of 2017.
This will be the 19-year-old midfielder’s second spell on loan, after briefly playing for League One side Crawley Town last year where he played alongside new Argyle team-mate Josh Simpson.
Plymouth manager Derek Adams is excited by Boateng’s loan, and told Western Morning News Sport: “He’s technically very good, strong and got a wee bit of creativity in him.
“He’s one that Crystal Palace have got high hopes for. Hopefully he can come here and move his career further forward.”
Boateng made his Palace debut aged 17 in an FA Cup tie defeat against Stoke City in 2013, and made one other first-team appearance the following year in the FA Cup third round win against West Brom.
He was also included in the Eagles’ match-day squad on several occasions last season.
Boateng becomes League Two Plymouth’s sixth signing of the summer following the arrivals of Gary Sawyer, Jake Jervis, Gregg Wylde, Simpson and Graham Carey.