Goals from Samir Carruthers, Dean Bowditch and Daniel Powell handed the visitors three points against a Dale outfit who saw their hopes of a play-off finish dashed by the Dons.
“I didn’t think I’d be stood here saying we’re on 88 points and not be promoted,” said Robinson.
“I think we’ve done all we can. We’ve played 45 very, very difficult games.
“There’s not been a second where we haven’t pushed ourselves to the limit and I think the players deserve tremendous credit.”
Robinson was less than impressed with Swindon’s decision to rest players for their game against second-placed Preston.
“They will say that they have to look after themselves, and I get that,” said Robinson.
“It’s not for me to say (it was unprofessional) that’s for everybody else.
“If it was a cup competition, there’d be something done about it. Mark Cooper will say that he’s had to do it for the right reasons and I have to respect that.
“But we knew that even without Swindon, we could take this to the last game of the season if we won – and we have done.”
The Dons hit the post early on through Dele Alli and took a 15th-minute lead through Carruthers.
Bowditch made it 2-0 after 29 minutes before the home side wasted a gilt-edged chance when Callum Camps fired wide from eight yards.
Rochdale came back into the game in the 65th minute when Ian Henderson set up Peter Vincenti to score from close range.
But Powell’s finish from a tight angle after 76 minutes restored Dons’ two-goal advantage.
Henderson pulled one back for Dale after 86 minutes but the home side’s push for the play-offs ended as the Dons held on for victory.
“I am really disappointed because MK are an outstanding side and you cannot give them the kind of goals we gave them in the first half, and the third goal as well – that was a gift,” said Dale boss Keith Hill.
“It was an absolute joke, defensively. The players have got to accept responsibility defensively when it comes to making good decisions and they haven’t done for most of the season and that is why we have lost 20 games.
“I thought that game summed our season up. We made too many individual mistakes.
“We had set our plan out to not make mistakes in our defensive third and we did it twice to gift them two goals and that really irks me because it tells me that players are not listening or are not capable of putting the plan into action.
“So, have we fallen just short? Or are we a million miles away?”