Vincelot, 29, has put pen to paper on a two-year contract and becomes the Sky Blues’ third signing of the summer.
“Romain is a player who has always stood out at this level and someone who will add a tenacity to our midfield,” Coventry boss Tony Mowbray told his club’s official website.
“He was a crucial part of the Leyton Orient side who made the play-offs during the 2013/14 season and someone we’ve looked at in detail over the past weeks.
“I want a team who are prepared to play football next season but also compete. For that, you need players who can take the ball in tight areas and play but also have a bit of bite so we’re competitive in all areas of the pitch.
“Romain has these attributes and I’m delighted to welcome another signing to the club ahead of next season.”
Vincelot made more than 80 appearance for Orient, scoring five goals, after joining the London club in February 2013.