Matt Doherty and Helder Costa were the heroes for the visitors, who got their reward for a spirited and energetic display against the in-form Bees.
Maxime Colin broke the deadlock for the hosts in the 31st minute with a sizzling 25-yard strike that arrowed into the bottom corner.
But Brentford were ultimately made to pay for a lacklustre display against a Wolves side who were quicker to every loose ball.
Doherty gave Paul Lambert’s side hope in the 86th minute when he was in the right place at the far post to steer substitute Ben Marshall’s right wing cross into the empty net.
And they took all three points with a minute of normal time remaining when Nico Yennaris’ half clearance dropped for Costa to volley into the bottom corner from the edge of the box.
It was no more than Wolves deserved after they laid siege to the Brentford goal in a one-sided second half that saw the hosts fail to get out of first gear.
Brentford centre-back Harlee Dean threw himself into a string of desperate late challenges to keep the clean sheet intact, but it was only a matter of time before Wolves’ persistence paid off.
Brentford’s only moment of quality came with the goal from Colin, the French defender exchanging a neat pass with Konstantin Kerschbaumer before striding on to smash the ball home from distance.
Wolves started the brighter of the two sides and Bees goalkeeper Daniel Bentley had to be off his line smartly to thwart David Edwards as he burst through on goal after just four minutes.
Brentford looked sluggish and it helped the visitors grew in confidence, fuelled by the pace and trickery up front of Nouha Dicko.
But it was the hosts who almost took the lead after 22 minutes when winger Sergi Canos fired narrowly wide from the edge of the box.
At the other end Dicko saw a snapshot charged down before Doherty’s first-time effort from the rebound bobbled just past the upright.
Costa’s speculative long-range effort failed to trouble Bentley, but Wanderers’ tails were up until Colin gave Brentford the lead out of the blue.
Lambert’s relegation haunted side continued to press and Edwards headed just over when well placed.
Wolves thought they had earned a foothold in the game just before the break when Costa was sent sprawling in the box under a challenge from Kerschbaumer, but referee Keith Stroud waved away the visitors’ protests.
After the break it was all Wolves and Dicko came close to equalising when he smashed a rising volley against the angle, former Bee George Saville blazing the rebound over.
Saville sent a dipping shot just wide and Doherty found the side-netting when it looked easier to score as the Brentford goal led a charmed life.
Edwards twice saw efforts charged down by last-ditch blocks as Brentford dropped deeper and deeper, but in the end Wolves’ resilience was rewarded.