Rovers looked by far the better side in the first half but were made to pay for a lackadaisical second-half performance.
Rochdale threatened first when Ian Henderson sent a powerful header just wide in the 11th minute, but they had to play second fiddle when Doncaster snatched the lead six minutes later.
A right-wing cross from Reece Wabara evaded everyone until Kyle Bennett popped up at the far post to force the ball home.
Nathan Tyson grazed the crossbar with a 20-yard volley and Jamie McCombe forced visiting goalkeeper Jamie Jones to punch clear with an acrobatic overhead kick as Rovers pressed for a second.
But a lapse in concentration led to Rochdale grabbing an equaliser in the 59th minute when Michael Rose crossed from the left and Henderson nipped in to flick the ball home at the near post.
Rochdale went closest to pinching a winner with home goalkeeper Stephen Bywater having to make an instinctive save from Calvin Andrew, while Peter Vincenti headed a good chance over the top three minutes from time.