Barkley suffered an ankle injury in Saturday’s win over Newcastle and the England international was substituted shortly before half-time.
Kante sustained a groin injury while on international duty with France, but was still included on the bench for the second game of a double-header, much to the annoyance of Blues manager Frank Lampard.
Lampard expects to be without centre-back Christensen for around two weeks after he sustained a hamstring injury playing for Denmark.
Rudiger has returned to training following a groin problem but the game came too soon for the German defender and he did not travel with the squad.
Chelsea have recorded one win and one draw from their opening two games in Group H and trail Wednesday’s opponents by three points.
Lampard gave an update on the injury situation at a pre-match press conference at the Johan Cruyff Arena in Amsterdam.
“Ross will hopefully be fit to train by Thursday,” Lampard said. “Rudiger trained with us today, he will be out of contention for the weekend.
“N’Golo is similarly training but we’ll see for the weekend.”
Chelsea face Burnley in the Premier League at Turf Moor on Saturday evening.